Category Archives: Transition to Adulthood
As the United States of America moves through the process of electing our next President, there is an opportunity for children to learn more than what they will see in the political ads and sound bites. The 2016 election cycle will undoubtedly be discussed in political science classes for years to come. Our children are living though history in the making, and it would be great if they had some understanding of what is going on around them.
One source of information about how our government works is the U.S. government itself. Almost 20 years ago, President Bill Clinton issued a memo on “Expanding Access to Internet-based Educational Resources for Children, Teachers, and Parents.” He directed all departments and agencies of the federal government to make high-quality educational content available on line in a way that was user friendly and fun for kids. The full content of the memo can be found at http://clinton2.nara.gov/WH/New/NetDay/memorandum.html
Much of this kid-friendly content can be accessed through a single website called “Kids.gov.” Kids.gov is the official children’s portal to the U.S. government. Information is targeted to four different audiences: children in grades K-5 or 6-8, parents and educators. Of course, you can select the material that best matches the learning level of your child or student(s). The information, games, posters and videos, etc. are also organized by topics that include art and music, math, reading and writing, exercise and eating healthy, science, on-line safety and more.
Right now, I would especially like to draw attention to material under the heading of “Government.” https://kids.usa.gov/government/index.shtml
There you will find information about the three branches of the federal government, how presidents get elected, and even the National Conventions. There are lesson plans for more formal instruction, but parents might choose to use the colorful posters to walk their child step-by-step through the process that is playing out before our very eyes. Please take full advantage of this teachable moment to help your child better understand this great country of ours. One day they will become adult citizens who will have the right to choose future presidents and legislators. Let’s start getting them ready!
With accommodations, modifications and thoughtful course selection most students who have a learning disability in math are able to make it through elementary and middle school. High schools operate on a different set of rules however, and for some of these students and their parents the path to a diploma can seem like a minefield! North Carolina’s Future-Ready Core Course of Study was designed to satisfy the minimum admission requirements for the University of North Carolina System schools and have all students graduate “college and career ready.”
This is a noble, and perhaps necessary, objective. But what about those students whose brains are hard-wired in a way that will always make algebra a foreign language for which there is no translation? The Future-Ready Core requires 4 units of math that include Algebra 1, Geometry, Algebra 2, and another math course beyond Algebra 2. The content of the first three courses can also come in the form of integrated Math I, II and III courses, but that does not make it easier to learn.
Fortunately, the activism of the Learning Disabilities Association of North Carolina many years ago still benefits the high school students of today. When Algebra 1 was first added as a graduation requirement a clause was placed in our Public School Law clarifying that:
The State Board (of Education) shall not adopt or enforce any rule that requires Algebra I as a graduation standard or as a requirement for a high school diploma for any student whose individualized education program (i) identifies the student as learning disabled in the area of mathematics and (ii) states that this learning disability will prevent the student from mastering Algebra I. [N.C.G.S. 115C-81(b)]
Because of this provision in the law, schools have to provide other ways for these students to satisfy the math graduation requirement. The student and parent can consult with school guidance counselors and others to put together an alternative sequence of four math courses that is appropriate for that student. The math sequence must be approved by the school principal in order to satisfy high school graduation requirements. As a general rule, students will still have to take two “pure” math courses, but they may be “Introductory…” or “Foundations…” courses that focus on basic skills.
Many career and technical education (CTE) courses have enough math-related content that they are approved to count as math credits if they are part of a student’s alternative math sequence. In some cases, the student may have to complete a 2-course sequence in order to gain one math credit. The CTE courses also still count as elective credits. Hopefully, students will be able to find eligible CTE courses that relate to either a personal or career interest. Even though no high school offers every possible CTE course, many of them are available as on-line courses through the North Carolina Virtual Public School (NCVPS). The NCVPS can greatly expand the range of course options that can be considered. This can be especially helpful for students in smaller high schools or school systems, or those enrolled in public charter schools.
Using an alternative math sequence may not allow a student to go directly into one of North Carolina’s 4-year public universities, but it can offer a path to a high school diploma. The diploma, in turn, opens the door to lots of possibilities. A student can choose to move directly into the workforce and be able to check “yes” when a job application asks “Did you graduate from high school?” They will be eligible to enroll in any of our community colleges to further their education. Private colleges, trade and technical schools set their own admission requirements. They may be willing to accept a math-challenged student into a major or program that does not require a high level of math skills.
There is no single path to success in high school, or in life. With planning, hard work and perseverance there are few limits to what young people can achieve. Calculators come in handy too!
By Debra Pickens
“If you don’t ASK, they won’t TELL!”
Have you ever had a feeling in your gut that something wasn’t right? When the Director of Disability Services told me that they didn’t know the Braille special math code, and that my son should drop College Algebra, I knew immediately why I had that feeling in my gut. “Here we go again, I thought. Another battle to fight!”
My son Billy was born on February 13, 1997 with Norrie’s Disease. He is totally blind with progressive hearing loss. Billy received early intervention services in the home and daycare. We established his IEP when he turned three and most of his one-on-one Specialists transitioned with him to public school, where they had a Visually Impaired (VI) resource room with a full-time Teacher of Visually Impaired (TVI).
Billy learned how to read and write Braille early. With the help of the TVI, Braillewriter and Braille Note taker, Billy was on the A/B Honor roll throughout his 12 years of public school. He graduated with a 3.5 GPA and a strong desire to attend a four-year college. He knew that there would be obstacles, and he had learned how to advocate for himself. What he didn’t know is that he would not have ACCESS to his academic materials in a timely manner when school started.
We met with The University’s Disability Services in late June and Billy’s counselor emailed his accommodation letter out to all of his professors early July. The letter told them “What” to do but not “How” to do it. When school started at the end of August, we found that his College Algebra class would be conducted mostly online, which was not in the course description when he registered. If you don’t ASK if it is an online course, then they want TELL you. We immediately reached out to the Director of Disability Services for guidance. Her advice was to drop the course until they could figure out how to get him ACCESS to the material. We knew that was not an option. He only had registered to take 12 hours and if he dropped the course, then his financial aid would not be granted.
The second suggestion was to audit the course or take an incomplete until he could obtain ACCESS to the material. Billy decided that he wanted to try using a one-on-one personal assistant to read to him and assist him in navigating the online system. This did not work because his one-on-one personal assistant did not know how to teach him College Algebra. We are still working with the Director of Disability Services to receive his quizzes and tests in Braille, which is his preferred method of communication.
The next battle was with his Theater class. The “Plays” were emailed to him as photo copies or in a pdf document. The documents would not translate to Braille on his Braille Note taker. We didn’t know to Ask them to convert to a format, which could be saved on a digital card and transferred to his Braille Note taker for him to read it in Braille, and they didn’t Tell us. He sat in class one day while the rest of the students were taking a quiz and he didn’t have ACCESS to the quiz in Braille. The inexperienced professor told Billy that she had reached out to Disability Services to ask “What” and “How” to get him ACCESS to the material and no one had responded.
By this point, Billy was overwhelmed and finally reached out to Mom for help. I communicated with the Director of Disability Services via email, telephone and face-to-face. I found out that all of the information submitted to be brailled a month ago had not been brailled yet, including the syllabuses for his classes. All of his professors were willing to make accommodations for Billy, but didn’t know “How” to do it. The Director of Disability Services had to reach out to them individually and explain the process of getting Billy ACCESS to his course materials.
The technology battle is still ongoing. Billy met with the AT Specialist at the University several times, but the AT Specialist did not know how to use this specialized equipment and Billy had a hard time understanding his accent. We had to request training through Division of Services for the Blind (DSB) and we are still waiting on a response. In the meantime, we paid for an AT Specialist who knows Billy’s specialized equipment to travel to Charlotte and train Billy on how to use some new technology. I regret that I did not include more detailed technology goals within his IEP starting in middle school.
The Orientation and Mobility (O&M) battle was by far the worst transition experience we both encountered. I sent Billy’s class schedule to DSB in early July. He was referred for O&M services in late July. He did not start receiving services until late August. She worked with him only 3 hours per day for about 3 days and she was not available during Billy’s first week of school. I had to pay for him to have a one-on-one personal assistant to help him get around the campus during that first week. The O&M Specialist was also not trained to teach someone who was born Blind and needed sensory orientation as well as mobility directions. Once again I had to pay for someone to come from out of town to train Billy on how to use the GPS Trekker.
Along the way I began to question whether or not college was for Billy? Now I know that, regardless of the obstacles we face, with or without a disability, it is okay to REST but you should never QUIT! Therefore, when I wake up in the morning, I will continue to ASK and FOLLOW UP until I find someone who can TELL us not only “What” to do but “How” to do it!
If you are the parent of teen-aged child who receives special education services, you have probably heard about something called Transition to Adulthood. Basically, schools are required to really think about what should happen in the last few years of school to prepare a student with a disability for their adult life. Regardless of whether they plan to go straight into the workforce, go to college or get other training, or continue to work on independent living skills for a while, there are steps that can be taken to make the transition out of high school a smoother one.
Many school systems offer Transition Fairs to provide an opportunity for students and parents to learn more about various options for adult services, post-secondary education and other community resources, all in one place. Sometimes the transition fairs will also include information sessions on topics that range from understanding Social Security benefits to job interview skills. Even if your child has a bit more time before she leaves school, it is always good to know what’s out there and learn what steps you should take, and when to take them.
Unfortunately, some school systems do a better job of getting the word out about transition fairs than others. Some will target certain groups of students and neglect to inform the parents of other students who have IEPs. Students with disabilities who spend most of their time in the general education setting often don’t get notices about a transition fair that may be going on in their community. Spring is the time of year when many of these transition fairs take place. If you haven’t heard about any in your area, ask your child’s special education teacher, case manager, guidance counselor, or the transition coordinator for your school system. Even if there are no plans to hold a transition fair this year, your questions may give them the idea to have one next year. It’s a win either way.
For students in middle and high school it is extremely important for parents to keep up with the courses that they are taking. The classes should offer the right amount of challenge (not too easy, not too hard). They should be preparing your child for whatever their goals are for life after high school. More importantly, the courses need to be chosen so that they meet the graduation requirements for your school system. With many schools using computer programs to create schedules for students, it’s not hard for the needs of individual students to be overlooked.
For many students who have disabilities, course selection is even more critical. For some students it will be important to make sure that they are placed in the course sections that are co-taught by both regular education and special education teachers. This can offer real-time assistance and support to help students be successful with grade-level material. The co-taught classes can be selected in the areas most likely impacted by the student’s disability. Sometimes the assumption is made that, because the student has an IEP, they should automatically be placed in the lowest level course available. This approach would keep many students from building on their strengths to reach their full potential. Students who need support in some subjects can also take typical or even honors classes in subjects that are areas of strength for them.
These days, most high schools are using block schedules that cover the entire content of a course during a single semester. It may be important to make sure that the courses that will be most challenging for your child are not all piled into the same semester. With thoughtful planning, the school can create a schedule that spreads the work load out more evenly. For example, your child can take two really hard classes at the same time plus a support class and an elective in an area of interest. This kind of planning from the very beginning will usually allow students to complete all of their graduation requirements within 4 years so they can graduate with their peers. Even if they have to pick up a summer class or return for an extra semester, the goal is that the student experiences success and gains knowledge that will help them throughout their life. The extra time will be well spent.
Parents also need to look out for other kinds of scheduling problems:
- Make sure that courses are taken in the right sequence. The level1 course should come before the level 2 course.
- Make sure that your child is not assigned to a course that they have already successfully completed. With rare exceptions, they will not earn course credit the second time around.
- Make sure that your child was not placed in an elective course that they have no interest in, or one that is a poor fit, just because there was space in that class. Forcing an extremely shy kid to take a drama class will probably not end well.
- Make sure that your child is on track to graduate when expected. Your child could be taking math and science classes that are counted as “electives” that do not meet the graduation requirements for that subject area. If your child comes up short by missing even a single graduation requirement, they will not get a diploma. At least once a year have your child’s guidance counselor review the courses that your child has taken and compare them to the courses required for graduation.
Read your child’s class schedule carefully as soon as you get it. If you see anything on that doesn’t look right, contact staff at the school immediately. Go to the school in person if you need to. The sooner any problems are corrected, the easier it will be for your child, and the better their educational experience will be.
In most states physical education is part of the standard school-age curriculum. In North Carolina, all students in kindergarten through 8th grade have physical education at least once per week, with daily opportunity for other outside activity. Students who have disabilities are also expected to participate in some form of physical education.
Some students have disabilities that require some accommodations in order for them to successfully participate in a typical physical education (PE) class. Other students require specially designed physical education, based on the unique needs associated with their disability. If the student has an Individualized Education Program (IEP) the goals for special physical education (sometimes called “Adapted PE”) will be determined by the IEP team, just like goals for other academic or functional skills. Needed accommodations for physical education will also be documented on the IEP or Section 504 Accommodation Plan.
While this seems pretty straight-forward, there are a couple of specific situations that were unclear enough that guidance was sought from the U.S. Department of Education. In both cases, the children involved were at an age or grade where physical education was not an automatic part of the regular education program for students without disabilities.
Most high school students are only required to take one physical education class in order to meet graduation requirements. The high school may offer additional PE classes as electives, but those classes are not required. In most public preschool programs the children will usually have the opportunity for play and outdoor activity, but it is not part of a structured physical education program.
Does this mean that school systems do not have to provide physical education services for students who have disabilities in preschool, or after the PE graduation requirement has been met? As with most things having to do with students who have disabilities, the short answer to that question is, “it depends.”
The U.S. Department of Education issued two letters in 2013 which clearly made the point that, if a student with a disability has an IEP that calls for specially designed physical education as a way to meet their unique needs, the school system must provide that service, either directly or through another public or private program. The letters further clarify that, in this situation, the right to a free appropriate public education, in conformity with the IEP, would include special physical education regardless of the location where most of the student’s services are delivered. Even students who participate in a community-based transition program would be entitled to special physical education services if it is listed on their IEP.
Ultimately, the decision about whether a student with a disability requires specially-designed physical education rests with the IEP team. The IEP team is also responsible for determining the accommodations that will allow a student with a disability to participate successfully in a PE elective course, whether that course is taken out of interest or as a way to maintain an adequate degree of fitness. The school district’s responsibility is to implement the IEP. It’s really not that complicated after all.
There has been a quiet, but growing movement taking place in the world of post-secondary education. Thanks to demand from students who have intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) and their families, and the support of a federal initiative, there are an increasing number of post-secondary education programs that allow individuals with I/DD to have a college experience. Today many more young people are living their dream of going to college!
Think College! is the joint effort of several federally funded projects. It is focused on promoting post-secondary education (PSE) as a choice for adults and transition-aged youth with intellectual disabilities across the nation. In 2009 Think College! conducted a survey of existing PSE programs and identified 149 programs located in 37 states. Today there are at least 212 programs, with 9 located here in North Carolina!
The Think College! website has a wealth of information about PSE programs, evidence-based practices, research findings and related resources. Think College! also provides training and technical assistance for parents, self-advocates, educators, administrators, legislators and others who play key roles in developing and supporting additional high quality PSE programs. Learn more at: www.thinkcollege.net
The Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities (CIDD) coordinates the North Carolina Post-Secondary Education Alliance (PSEA), a diverse group of stakeholders who have a mission to expand the PSE options for individuals with I/DD in North Carolina. The PSEA webpage has information and links for those interested in creating new programs as well as information on the existing programs. There are currently programs at 5 community colleges: Alamance, Central Piedmont, Cleveland, Randolph, and Western Piedmont. There are also programs housed at Appalachian State University, UNC-Chapel Hill, UNC-Greensboro, and Western Carolina University.
Visit the PSEA homepage at: www.cidd.unc.edu/psea In addition to information about “the Alliance” and its activities, you will find links to comprehensive information about each North Carolina program. For an easy side-by-side comparison, there is also an “At-a-Glance” document that uses a grid format to provide some key information. Thanks to the PSEA, information about post-secondary options for students with I/DD is now also available on the College Foundation of North Carolina website: www.cfnc.org, a central information source for all students who are thinking about college. Now we are playing on the big stage!
If you have, or know of, a young person with I/DD who may be interested in going to college after they leave school, be sure to discuss this with their teacher and IEP team. The student’s transition component, and other parts of the IEP, can be developed to help prepare the student for a successful PSE experience. Focus on the hard and soft skills that will be needed on campus, in the workplace and community, and for independent living. Many of these programs also work with adults who have already been out of school for a while, but some have a special focus on those who are in the process of making the transition to adulthood. Contact any program that you have interest in to get more information, sooner rather than later. That’s how you begin to turn a dream into a goal, and then into reality!
Our federal special education law, IDEA, requires that a re-evaluation occur every three years for all students who receive special education services. This does not mean that every child has to go through the full battery of tests and assessments that were done when the child was first evaluated to see if they eligible for special education services. What it does mean is that the IEP team must have a discussion about whether additional evaluation information is needed to determine:
- If the student continues to be eligible for special education and related services;
- Present level of academic achievement and developmental needs;
- Whether changes need to made to the student’s special education and/or related services.
If some additional assessment information is needed, the IEP team then decides the areas in which the child will be evaluated. The re-evaluation can include some or all of the initial testing, or may include new areas where there are concerns. if the parent gives permission, the school will move forward with the evaluations. The IEP team will meet again to discuss the evaluation results and what they mean for planning the child’s education.
When the re-evaluation meeting happens in high school, the team often decides that no evaluation is needed. This can cause problems later if the young person tries to access adult services or accommodations with outdated documentation of their disability. For example, most colleges will only accept evaluations that have been conducted within the last three years. Some will want the evaluation to be current within one year in order to consider accommodations for a student that has a specific learning disability. Students who are seeking accommodations on tests like the SAT and ACT also have to provide current documentation of their disability.
Another reason to think about conducting some evaluations in 8th grade or high school is to gather information that could assist with planning for the student’s transition to adulthood. Students who have an IEP that meets their needs in a typical school situation may need to learn new skills in order to function as independently as possible as an adult. having current information about the student’s skills and functioning can help the student and IEP team identify appropriate post-secondary goals and the transition services and activities that could help the student reach those goals. Occupational therapy, assistive technology, and vocational evaluations may be important for some students as the focus shifts from how the student participates in the classroom to how they can access and function within the larger community. The evaluation results may impact several parts of the IEP.
Do not allow the re-evaluation meeting to become a compliance exercise. Have real discussion about how obtaining additional assessment information about that particular student might be truly beneficial. Also remember that, even if the rest of the IEP team does not feel that new evaluation information is necessary, the school is required to conduct the evaluation if the parent requests it.