It’s report card time and time to see how the first half of the school year went. If your child’s report card reflects solid grades and good work habits, some sort of celebration is in order. One of my co-workers learned that her daughter earned a 96 in an advanced math class. She offered to buy ice cream, but her daughter wanted her bedroom painted instead. Fair enough!
If, on the other hand, you were disappointed in your child’s progress or performance, there is still time to turn things around. You and your child can press the reset button by looking for ways to improve on things that you have been doing. Think about changes that can be made on many possible levels.
- If your child has poor sleeping habits, try establishing a bed-time routine that gradually steps down the amount of activity and stimulation in the household. A well-rested brain functions better.
- If your child wastes time in the evening and then stays up late doing homework, set a firm cutoff time to stop working, shut down the computer and place everything in the backpack (which will “live” in a designated spot in another room). Then start winding things down toward bedtime. Provide prompts and reminders earlier in the evening to serve as fair warning. It may take a couple of incomplete assignments or disappointing test grades to get the real message across. Don’t cave in though, because it is essential that students develop good work habits, including learning how to effectively manage their time, if they are going to be able to sustain their success throughout the school and college years. Showing up for class exhausted and inattentive will eventually take its toll. Throwing together projects at the last minute and cramming for tests will also lead to poorer quality results that your child will take less pride in. I know this first-hand from my experience as person who went through school with undiagnosed ADHD.
- If your child is overwhelmed by an over-packed schedule that doesn’t leave enough time for schoolwork and “down time,” consider taking a break from one of the activities. Unless your child is talented enough that a sport or cheerleading scholarship is a real possibility, they might be better off burning the candle from only one end. Keep the activities that give them joy, and set aside those that are on the schedule just because of habit.
- If your child has an IEP or Section 504 accommodation plan, review it to see if it adequately addresses her current needs. It might be time to update the accommodations and supports to match performance expectations that tend to get higher each year. Get your child’s input so that any changes are going to be ones that they think will be helpful and will cooperate with.
- Re-establish lines of communication with teachers and other school staff. If your child will have different classes for the 2nd semester, there may be new teachers who may not be aware of his special needs or the fact that you are a concerned and involved parent who expects to be considered an equal part of your child’s educational team. Set a positive tone and let them know that you are looking for this semester to be better than the last one.
- Look for any other areas where a change for the better might be possible: diet and nutrition, general health and well-being, mental health, organization (personal and/or household), social skills, etc. Consult with trusted friends, family and professionals to see if they have any suggestions.
If things are going great, keep doing what you are doing. If not, try something different that might lead to better results. Remember, there can be no growth without change!
For many students who have disabilities, the accommodations that are provided through their Individualized Educational Program (IEP) or Section 504 Accommodation Plan are extremely important to their school success. The accommodations are the things that are being done in a different way because of the impacts of the child’s disability. Accommodations could involve changes in the physical environment, school assignments, how the student participates in school activities, instructional materials, how much time a student is given to complete a test or assignment, additional supports, etc. The range of possible accommodations is mind-blowing, but they are selected based on the unique needs of each individual student.
Children should be told about their accommodations as soon as they are old enough to understand what they are and why they were chosen for them. Many parents are not comfortable talking to their child about his or her disability. They worry that it might negatively impact the child’s self-esteem. This concern suggests that the child is unaware that they have a disability. Even if the child does not know the name of a “condition” that they may have been diagnosed with, most kids are very aware of the things that they have trouble with. They know that it’s harder for them to write neatly, read, do math, remember things, see the board, walk fast, speak clearly, and so on. If they do have a diagnosis, learning that there’s a reason for why they struggle with certain things can come as a big relief. Even if there is no diagnosis or other explanation for why, it is generally helpful to have others at least acknowledge that things are difficult, and that it’s not their fault.
Talk to your child about how each accommodation is expected to help and how it should be implemented. Explain that sometimes a teacher or other school staff member might not be aware of the accommodations. Talk to him about how to handle situations where an accommodation is not provided. Discuss or role play what your child can do or say to let the adult know that he is supposed to have extra time, be moved into a separate room for a test, etc. Let your child know that it is also important for him to tell you when accommodations are not followed. You want to be able to address any problems as soon as possible.
Speaking with your child about her accommodations also gives her a chance to tell you about what is, and is not, working for her. It could be time to take another look at different ways that your child’s needs can be met, and maybe see if another accommodation would be more appropriate at this point. IEPs and 504 Plans are fluid documents and student input can sometimes make the difference between whether you have a document that looks good on paper, or one that actually works for your child.
Having these conversations, and preparing your child to handle “what if…” situations, can help your child learn how to effectively advocate for himself. That is an important life skill that he needs to start learning as early as possible.
In most states physical education is part of the standard school-age curriculum. In North Carolina, all students in kindergarten through 8th grade have physical education at least once per week, with daily opportunity for other outside activity. Students who have disabilities are also expected to participate in some form of physical education.
Some students have disabilities that require some accommodations in order for them to successfully participate in a typical physical education (PE) class. Other students require specially designed physical education, based on the unique needs associated with their disability. If the student has an Individualized Education Program (IEP) the goals for special physical education (sometimes called “Adapted PE”) will be determined by the IEP team, just like goals for other academic or functional skills. Needed accommodations for physical education will also be documented on the IEP or Section 504 Accommodation Plan.
While this seems pretty straight-forward, there are a couple of specific situations that were unclear enough that guidance was sought from the U.S. Department of Education. In both cases, the children involved were at an age or grade where physical education was not an automatic part of the regular education program for students without disabilities.
Most high school students are only required to take one physical education class in order to meet graduation requirements. The high school may offer additional PE classes as electives, but those classes are not required. In most public preschool programs the children will usually have the opportunity for play and outdoor activity, but it is not part of a structured physical education program.
Does this mean that school systems do not have to provide physical education services for students who have disabilities in preschool, or after the PE graduation requirement has been met? As with most things having to do with students who have disabilities, the short answer to that question is, “it depends.”
The U.S. Department of Education issued two letters in 2013 which clearly made the point that, if a student with a disability has an IEP that calls for specially designed physical education as a way to meet their unique needs, the school system must provide that service, either directly or through another public or private program. The letters further clarify that, in this situation, the right to a free appropriate public education, in conformity with the IEP, would include special physical education regardless of the location where most of the student’s services are delivered. Even students who participate in a community-based transition program would be entitled to special physical education services if it is listed on their IEP.
Ultimately, the decision about whether a student with a disability requires specially-designed physical education rests with the IEP team. The IEP team is also responsible for determining the accommodations that will allow a student with a disability to participate successfully in a PE elective course, whether that course is taken out of interest or as a way to maintain an adequate degree of fitness. The school district’s responsibility is to implement the IEP. It’s really not that complicated after all.
Part of the excitement of going back to school is thinking about the fun parts of the school experience. Many children look forward to playing with friends during recess, having lively conversations at lunchtime or on the school bus, and field trips that bring history, art and science up close and personal. Many schools also offer extra-curricular activities that range from sports, music, and drama to special interest or service clubs. It is through these activities that many students form lasting friendships, discover gifts and talents, or gain experiences that help prepare them for future careers.
Students that have disabilities should be encouraged to consider becoming actively involved in all parts of school life. By law (Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973), they should be given an equal opportunity to participate, but sometimes that message is not clearly communicated to the students, or to the adults that make the extra-curricular activities possible. In some schools, notices about club sign-ups, team tryouts or driver’s education courses are not even distributed in the special education classrooms. It’s hard to make a choice when you don’t know what the options are.
School staff may need to be more intentional in their effort to publicize these opportunities throughout the entire student population. Parents can also ask about what’s going on at their child’s school and the process for becoming involved if their child has an interest in a particular activity.
Some students with disabilities may need accommodations, assistive technology or other supports to successfully participate in their chosen extra-curricular activity. They may also need accommodations for some of the non-academic parts of the regular school day. IEP teams and 504 committees sometimes overlook these times when they are discussing the child’s educational needs. In some cases, this amounts to a missed opportunity to enhance the child’s school experience by supporting them through their disability-related challenges, or continue to work on IEP goals in a non-classroom setting. For other children, such an oversight can set them up for avoidable social or behavioral difficulties.
The good news is that IEPs and Section 504 accommodation plans are living documents that can be revised whenever the need to do so arises. Teachers, coaches and other adults also have the freedom to make many accommodations on their own when they identify a need for them. It almost goes without saying that a child may need different types of support for different activities.
The I’m Tyler video http://imtyler.org/index.php/video/ does a powerful job of making the point that students with disabilities are capable of participating in a wide range of activities when the adults around them focus more on what they can do than on what they can’t do. A little effort, imagination and open-mindedness goes a very long way toward giving students with disabilities the chance that they deserve to experience each day as full members of their school and larger communities.
Ask ECAC will occasionally discuss a situation or question that repeatedly comes to us from parents. We will offer an answer that will be of use to the vast majority of our readers. As with all things related to special education and people with disabilities, there are factors unique to each child that may have some bearing on how to best handle your particular situation.
Question: My 5 year old son has Autism Spectrum Disorder and he receives special education services at school. His kindergarten teacher has already told me that she is concerned about my son’s safety and he will only be able to go on field trips with his class if I come along to personally supervise him. Do I have to agree to this?
Answer: If extra conditions or restrictions are put on your son’s ability to participate in a school activity solely because of his disability, this would be considered to be a form of discrimination that would be inconsistent with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Section 504 is a federal civil rights law that prohibits any program that receives federal funds from denying a person with a disability the equal opportunity to access, participate in, or benefit from that program. Our public schools receive some federal funding, and any child that has an IEP is a person with a disability under Section 504.
One thing that you may want to do is call for an IEP meeting and make sure that your child’s IEP clearly includes field trips and extra-curricular activities as part of his General Education Program Participation. Regardless of whether he will be taking the field trips with a special education class or a regular education class, any accommodations or supports that your child will need should be clearly listed and described. Such accommodations could include things like: close-proximity adult supervision at all times, preferential seating away from interior and exterior doors, or adequate staffing to allow for removal to another area, if needed. These accommodations are not on the drop-down box of the computer programs commonly used for IEP writing, but they can be added as “Other”. Also, preparation ahead of time so that your child knows what to expect, and communication with the teacher about how to handle some “what if…” scenarios should reduce the chances of running into any significant problems on the day of the trip or special event.
If you still find that there is resistance to including your child in these activities, discuss your concern with the school principal and, if necessary, your school system’s Section 504 Coordinator (they may be listed under “Federal Program Compliance” or some similar title). In North Carolina there is a Section 504 Consultant at the Department of Public Instruction, but the entity officially charged with enforcing Section 504 in schools is the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) at the U.S. Department of Education. Formal Complaints about disability discrimination would need to be submitted to OCR for investigation. Hopefully, things will be resolved long before that step becomes necessary.